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The Grammar Translation Method [coverattach=1]Latin and Ancient Greek are known as "dead" languages, based on the fact that people no longer speak them for the purpose of interactive communication. Yet

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Standart The Grammar Translation Method

The Grammar Translation Method

[coverattach=1]Latin and Ancient Greek are known as "dead" languages, based on the fact that people no longer speak them for the purpose of interactive communication. Yet they are still acknowledged as important languages to learn (especially Latin) for the purpose of gaining access to classical literature, and up until fairly recently, for the kinds of grammar training that led to the mental dexterity considered so important in any higher education study stream.

Latin has been studied for centuries, with the prime objectives of learning how to read classical Latin texts, understanding the fundamentals of grammar and translation, and gaining insights into some important foreign influences Latin has had on the development of other European languages. The method used to teach it overwhelmingly bore those objectives in mind, and came to be known (appropriately!) as the Classical Method. It is now more commonly known in Foreign Language Teaching circles as the Grammar Translation Method.

It is hard to decide which is more surprising - the fact that this method has survived right up until today (alongside a host of more modern and more "enlightened" methods), or the fact that what was essentially a method developed for the study of "dead" languages involving little or no spoken communication or listening comprehension is still used for the study of languages that are very much alive and require competence not only in terms of reading, writing and structure, but also speaking, listening and interactive communication. How has such an archaic method, "remembered with distaste by thousands of school learners" (Richards and Rodgers, 1986:4) perservered?

It is worth looking at the objectives, features and typical techniques commonly associated with the Grammar Translation Method, in order to both understand how it works and why it has shown such tenacity as an acceptable (even recommended or respected) language teaching philosophy in many countries and institutions around the world.
Objectives

Most teachers who employ the Grammar Translation Method to teach English would probably tell you that (for their students at least) the most fundamental reason for learning the language is give learners access to English literature, develop their minds "mentally" through foreign language learning, and to build in them the kinds of grammar, reading, vocabulary and translation skills necessary to pass any one of a variety of mandatory written tests required at High School or Tertiary level.

Some teachers who use the method might also tell you that it is the most effective way to prepare students for "global communication" by beginning with the key skills of reading and grammar. Others may even say it is the "least stressful" for students because almost all the teaching occurs in L1 and students are rarely called upon to speak the language in any communicative fashion.

More conservative teachers from more conservative countries are even likely to be put out by anyone merely questioning the method, and a typical response could be "because that's the way it's always been done - it's the way I learned and look, now I'm a professor". The point being, the method is institutionalized and considered fundamental. Such teachers are probably even unware that the method has a name and can be compared alongside other methods.

Key Features

According to Prator and Celce-Murcia (1979:3), the key features of the Grammar Translation Method are as follows:

(1) Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.

(2) Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.

(3) Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.

(4) Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form
and inflection of words.

(5) Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.

(6) Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in in grammatical
analysis.

(7) Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language
into the mother tongue.

(8) Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.


Latin and Ancient Greek are known as "dead" languages, based on the fact that people no longer speak them for the purpose of interactive communication. Yet they are still acknowledged as important languages to learn (especially Latin) for the purpose of gaining access to classical literature, and up until fairly recently, for the kinds of grammar training that led to the mental dexterity considered so important in any higher education study stream.

Latin has been studied for centuries, with the prime objectives of learning how to read classical Latin texts, understanding the fundamentals of grammar and translation, and gaining insights into some important foreign influences Latin has had on the development of other European languages. The method used to teach it overwhelmingly bore those objectives in mind, and came to be known (appropriately!) as the Classical Method. It is now more commonly known in Foreign Language Teaching circles as the Grammar Translation Method.

It is hard to decide which is more surprising - the fact that this method has survived right up until today (alongside a host of more modern and more "enlightened" methods), or the fact that what was essentially a method developed for the study of "dead" languages involving little or no spoken communication or listening comprehension is still used for the study of languages that are very much alive and require competence not only in terms of reading, writing and structure, but also speaking, listening and interactive communication. How has such an archaic method, "remembered with distaste by thousands of school learners" (Richards and Rodgers, 1986:4) perservered?

It is worth looking at the objectives, features and typical techniques commonly associated with the Grammar Translation Method, in order to both understand how it works and why it has shown such tenacity as an acceptable (even recommended or respected) language teaching philosophy in many countries and institutions around the world.
Objectives

Most teachers who employ the Grammar Translation Method to teach English would probably tell you that (for their students at least) the most fundamental reason for learning the language is give learners access to English literature, develop their minds "mentally" through foreign language learning, and to build in them the kinds of grammar, reading, vocabulary and translation skills necessary to pass any one of a variety of mandatory written tests required at High School or Tertiary level.

Some teachers who use the method might also tell you that it is the most effective way to prepare students for "global communication" by beginning with the key skills of reading and grammar. Others may even say it is the "least stressful" for students because almost all the teaching occurs in L1 and students are rarely called upon to speak the language in any communicative fashion.

More conservative teachers from more conservative countries are even likely to be put out by anyone merely questioning the method, and a typical response could be "because that's the way it's always been done - it's the way I learned and look, now I'm a professor". The point being, the method is institutionalized and considered fundamental. Such teachers are probably even unware that the method has a name and can be compared alongside other methods.

Top | Objectives | Key Features | Typical Techniques | Comments
Key Features

According to Prator and Celce-Murcia (1979:3), the key features of the Grammar Translation Method are as follows:

(1) Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.

(2) Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.

(3) Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.

(4) Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form
and inflection of words.

(5) Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.

(6) Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in in grammatical
analysis.

(7) Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language
into the mother tongue.

(8) Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.


Typical Techniques

Diane Larsen-Freeman, in her book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (1986:13) provides expanded descriptions of some common/typical techniques closely associated with the Grammar Translation Method. The listing here is in summary form only.

(1) Translation of a Literary Passage
(Translating target language to native language)

(2) Reading Comprehension Questions
(Finding information in a passage, making inferences and relating to personal experience)

(3) Antonyms/Synonyms
(Finding antonyms and synonyms for words or sets of words).

(4) Cognates
(Learning spelling/sound patterns that correspond between L1 and the target language)

(5) Deductive Application of Rule
(Understanding grammar rules and their exceptions, then applying them to new examples)

(6) Fill-in-the-blanks
(Filling in gaps in sentences with new words or items of a particular grammar type).

(7) Memorization
(Memorizing vocabulary lists, grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms)

(8) Use Words in Sentences
(Students create sentences to illustrate they know the meaning and use of new words)

(9) Composition
(Students write about a topic using the target language)

Comments

Many people who have undertaken foreign language learning at high schools or universities even in the past 10 years or so may remember many of the teaching techniques listed above for the Grammar Translation Method. They may also recall that the language learning experience was uninspiring, rather boring, or even left them with a sense of frustration when they traveled to countries where the language was used only to find they couldn't understand what people were saying and struggled mightily to express themselves at the most basic level.

Very few modern language teaching experts would be quick to say that this is an effective language teaching method, and fewer would dare to try and assert that it results in any kind of communicative competence. As Richards and Rodgers (1986:5) state, "It is a method for which there is no theory. There is no literature that offers a rationale or justification for it that attempts to relate it to issues in linguistics, psychology, or educational theory."

And yet the Grammar Translation Method is still common in many countries - even popular. Brown attempts to explain why the method is still employed by pointing out

"It requires few specialized skills on the part of teachers. Tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and can be objectively scored. Many standardized tests of foreign languages still do not attempt to tap into communicative abilities, so students have little motivation to go beyond grammar analogies, translations, and rote exercises." (1994:53)
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Alt 16.06.09, 16:56
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Üyelik tarihi: Jan 2008
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ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!ghostgirl öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!
Standart The Grammar Translation Method

GTM kullanan öğretmenin amacı hedef dil ile yazılmış olan edebi metinlerin öğrenciler tarafından okunabilmesini sağlamaktır. Öğretmen tam bir otoritedir. O ne biliyorsa öğrenciler ancak onu öğrenir.

Öğretmen kuralları verir, öğrenciler öğrenir. Öğretmen öğrencilerin öğreneceği kelimelerin listesini verir ve öğrenciler kendilerine verilen listeyi ve karşılığı olan kelimeyi ezberlerler. (deductive/explicit language teaching) Kurallar açık olarak, doğrudan kural olarak verilir.

Sınıf içindeki etkileşim öğretmen merkezlidir ve öğretmenden öğrenciye bilgi aktarımıyla sınırlıdır. Öğrenciler arasında çok az iletişim vardır.

GTM öğretmen tamamen edebi dile odaklanır ve kültürün edebiyat ve tüzel sanatlardan müteşekkil oluğuna inanır.

Üzerinde durulan dil alanları vocabulary ve grammar’dır. Okuma ve yazma en önemli yetenekler olarak görülür. Konuşma ve dinleme nispeten daha az dikkate alınırken telaffuz neredeyse iç önemsenmez.

Öğrencinin anadili anlam taşıyıcısı olarak kabul edilir ve sınıf içindeki ifadelerin çoğu öğrencinin anadilindedir.

Değerlendirme çeviri sorularının olduğu yazılı testlerle, grammar kaynaklı ve hedef dilin kültürüyle alakalı sorular sorularak yapılır.

Öğrenci hatalarına tolerans yoktur. Hata yapıldığı anda düzeltilir. Öğrenci doğru cevap vermek zorundadır.
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