Ücretsiz Online İngilizce Dersi
English Grammar Lessons / CAN
We use 'can' to talk about 'possibility'.
Can you do that?
I can't manage to do that.
You can leave your car in that parking space.
You cannot smoke in here.
Notice that there are two negative forms: 'can't' and 'cannot'. These mean exactly the same thing. When we are speaking, we usually say 'can't'.
We use 'can' to talk about 'ability'.
I can speak French.
I can't drive.
We use 'can' to ask for and give permission. (We also use 'may' for this but is more formal and much less common.)
Can I speak to you or are you too busy?
You can use my phone.
You can't come in.
We use 'can' in offers, requests and instructions.
Can I help?
Can you give me a hand?
When you finish that, you can take out the garbage.
We use 'can' with 'see' 'hear' 'feel' 'smell' 'taste' to talk about something which is happening now . (Where you would use the present continuous with most other verbs.)
I can smell something burning.
Can you hear that noise?
I can't see anything.
We can use 'can't' for deduction. The opposite of 'can't' in this context is 'must'..
He was in London one hour ago when I spoke to him. He can't be here yet.
You can't be hungry. You've just eaten.
You must be hungry. You haven't eaten anything all day.
Caroline's English Listening Exercises – BRUSSELS
Recently I visited the capital of Europe. What was it like and what did I think of it? Find out by doing these four exercises:
Business English Lessons / Up Phrasal Verbs 5
If you 'do up' your coat, you fasten it.
· Do up your jacket. It looks untidy.
· Can you do up my coat for me? My hands are frozen.
'Do up' can also mean to decorate or make repairs to something.
· Buy me the paint and I will do up my room.
· I'm going to do up my car so that I can sell it.
To 'hold up' can mean to delay.
· We were held up by a traffic accident.
· I don't mean to hold you up but we must finish this discussion.
To 'keep up with' can mean to go at the same speed as.
· It is difficult to keep up with all the changes they are making.
· I don't know how you keep up with all the news.
To 'keep up' can mean to maintain.
· It is difficult to keep up the payments on my new car.
· I can't afford to keep up an apartment in town and a house in the country.
If you 'kick up a fuss', you complain loudly about something.
· He will kick up a fuss when he finds out that he is not invited to the meeting.
· The restaurant had given away our table so I kicked up a fuss and got another one.
If you 'stir up' trouble, you cause it by agitation.
· She is always stirring up trouble about some grievance or another.
· Some shareholders tried to stir up trouble about the sale of the factory.
If you 'sum up', you briefly restate the main points of a meeting or discussion.
· I'd like to sum up my presentation with this quote from Winston Churchill.
· Could somebody sum up what you talked about this morning?
If you 'turn up' a dial, you increase it.
· Could you turn up the volume? I cannot hear it.
· That's the brightest I can make the picture. I've turned up the control to the maximum.
If you 'turn up' somewhere, you arrive, sometimes unexpectedly.
· John turned up at the party, even though he wasn't invited.
· He's always turning up for work an hour late.
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Ücretsiz Online İngilizce Dersi-English Grammar Lessons / -ING FORMS
English Grammar Lessons / -ING FORMS
The –ing form can be used like a noun, like an adjective or like a verb.
Smoking is forbidden.
I have a long working day.
I don't like dancing.
When it is used like a noun it may or may not have an article before it.
Marketing is a very inexact science.
The marketing of the product will continue for a few months yet.
It can also be part of a 'noun phrase'.
Speaking to an audience is always stressful.
Swimming after work is very relaxing.
In formal English, we would use a possessive with the –ing form. In informal English, many people do not.
I'm angry about his missing the meeting.
I'm angry about him missing the meeting.
Do you mind my coming?
Do you mind me coming?
As an adjective, the –ing form can be used before a noun.
I was met by a welcoming party at the airport.
Let's go to the meeting room.
The –ing form is used after prepositions.
Before leaving, you need to speak to Sarah.
After discussing it with her, I've changed my mind.
Instead of feeling sorry for yourself, do some work for charity.
Notice that when 'to' is used as a preposition, it is followed by the –ing form.
I don't object to working this Sunday.
I'm looking forward to seeing him again.
I'm used to working long hours.
There are many verb + -ing combinations. Here are some common ones:
I admit telling her.
I appreciate having the raise.
I avoid speaking to him.
I consider blowing your nose in public to be wrong.
I delayed coming until the last possible moment.
He denied telling her.
I detest going to parties.
I dislike speaking in public.
I enjoy dancing.
I feel like having a party.
I've finished writing the report.
I've given up going to the gym.
I can't help thinking about it.
I can't imagine ever leaving this company.
I don't mind doing that.
He put off talking to her as long as he could.
I can't stand drinking beer.
Some verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or –ing form but with different meanings. Here are some common ones:
I stopped smoking last month. (I no longer smoke.)
I stopped to smoke a cigarette. (I stopped what I was doing and had a cigarette.)
I remember telling him. (A memory of the past.)
I must remember to tell him. (Something to remember for the future.)
I'm interested in finding out more details. (Interested about the future.)
I was interested to read his report. (Interested about the past.)
Some verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or –ing form but with the same meaning.
Here are some common ones:
I love to go shopping.
I love going shopping.
I'm afraid to fly.
I'm afraid of flying.
I started to learn English 5 years ago.
I started learning English 5 years ago.
Caroline's English Listening Exercises – QUARANTINE
Pets coming into Britain have to go into quarantine. What's it like and what happens when it's finished?
Find out by doing these four exercises:
Business English Lessons
Business English Lessons / Up Phrasal Verbs 4
If someone 'beats you up', they hit and kick you and hurt you a lot.
· The muggers beat him up badly.
· I was beaten up so badly that I was off work for a month.
If you 'bottle up' a feeling or emotion, you suppress them and don't express them.
· If you bottle up your feelings, you will make yourself ill.
· I was angry but I bottled up my feelings during the meeting.
If you 'call someone up', you phone them.
· I tried to call you up earlier but there was no answer.
· Call me up when you get a chance.
If something 'crops up', it happens unexpectedly.
· Something has cropped up. I ** going to have to work late.
· If a problem crops up when I ** away, give me a call on my cell phone.
If you 'freshen up', you wash and make yourself more presentable.
· I need a minute to freshen up before we meet them.
· When they arrive, they will probably need a few moments to freshen up after the journey.
If your eyes 'light up', they become excited.
· Her eyes lit up when she saw the dress.
· His eyes lit up when he saw her wearing the dress.
If you 'own up', you confess to something.
· Nobody has owned up to starting the fire.
· He owned up to being a big fan of Britney.
If you 'polish something up', you improve it.
· The basic report is fine but you need to polish it up a bit.
· I must polish up my Japanese before we go to Tokyo.
If you 'speed up', you go faster.
· We need to speed up production. It is taking too long.
· Can you speed up a bit? I ** going to miss my train.
If you 'tighten up' something, you make it more secure.
· We need to tighten up security in the light of these threats.
· We need to tighten up our quality control system. There have been too many mistakes.
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Ücretsiz Online İngilizce Dersi-English for Human Resources - Hire and Fire
English for Human Resources - Hire and Fire
If you 'hire' someone, you employ them.
* We hired him on a six month contract.
* I hear that they are not hiring people at the moment because of budget problems.
If you 'fire' somebody, you dismiss them from their job, usually because of something they did.
* I had to fire Sally because she kept on making mistakes.
* If you don't improve, they may decide to fire you.
If you 'make somebody redundant', you dismiss them from their job for economic reasons.
* They are closing down the factory and making 500 people redundant.
* I was made redundant from my last job.
If you 'recruit' people, you persuade them to work for you.
* We need to recruit more young engineers.
* It's difficult to recruit people because our pay is so low.
If you 'headhunt' someone for a job, you approach them because you think they are well-qualified for the job and offer them the job.
* We need to look at the people doing similar jobs in other companies and headhunt the best one.
* He was headhunted at great expense but the job didn't work out and he left.
If you 'hand in (or give in) your notice', you tell your employer that you are going to leave the company.
* She handed in her notice this morning and is leaving at the end of the month.
* He gave in his notice and they told him he could leave straight away.
If a company 'gives someone notice', they tell them that they are going to lose their jobs.
* The company only gave me three days' notice that I was being made redundant.
* We have to give her two months' notice that we are letting her go.
If an employer 'sacks' someone, they fire them.
* They sacked me without notice after ten years with the company.
* I hear they intend to sack him because of his bullying.
If you 'get the sack' or are 'given the sack', you are fired.
* He was given the sack because he kept arriving late.
* If I keep making mistakes, I'm going to get the sack.
'Severance pay' is money paid to workers when they are made redundant.
* The redundant workers were given 26 weeks' severance pay.
* After ten years, I got three days' notice and no severance pay.
If you take legal action against your employer for 'unfair dismissal', you claim that they dismissed you for no good reason.
* He is suing them for unfair dismissal as he says he was only ever late once.
* Dismiss me and I'll take you to court for unfair dismissal. I've done nothing to deserve this.
If you take legal action against your employer for 'constructive dismissal', you claim that you were forced to leave your job because of the actions/behavior of your employer.
* She is making a claim for constructive dismissal because she claims her immediate boss bullied her.
* I'm sure you have the grounds for a complaint of constructive dismissal.
Ücretsiz Online İngilizce Dersi -English Grammar Lessons / May & might
English Grammar Lessons / May & might
We can use 'may' to ask for permission. However this is rather formal and not used very often in modern spoken English.
* May I leave now?
* May I borrow your dictionary?
* May we think about it until tomorrow?
We use 'may' to suggest something is possible.
* Philip may come to stay with us
* I may not have time to do it straightaway.
* It may snow later today.
We use 'might' to suggest a small possibility of something. Often we read that 'might' suggests a smaller possibility that 'may', there is in fact little difference and 'might is more usual than 'may' in spoken English.
* It might rain this afternoon.
* She might be at home by now but it's not sure at all.
* I might not have time to go to the shops for you.
* I might not go.
For the past, we use 'might have'.
* He might have tried to call you while you were out.
* I might have left it in the taxi.
Caroline’s English Listening Exercises - COOKING
Cooking is something that is essential but also a great pleasure for a lot of people. Is it something I ** interested in and good at?
Find out by doing these four exercises:
Ücretsiz Online İngilizce Dersi -English Grammar Lessons - Past Simple
English Grammar Lessons - Past Simple
Past actions which happened one immediately after the other Geçmişte yapilan iki işten birinin bir anda olduğu yerde
she woke up, got out of bed and made a cup of tea
Past habit or state Gemi -teki al kanl k yada sürekli hareketlerde He rode his bike to school every day when he was a child.
Complete action or event which happened at a stated past time kesin olarak tamamlanm bir olayda she sold her car last week. ("When?" "Last week ." �stated past time)
Complete past actions not connected to the present with a stated or implied time reference Geçmişte tamamlanan ve bu anla bağlantısı olmayan durumlarda Shakespeare wrote at least 36 plays.
(Shakespeare is dead-he won't write any more.)
Yesterday, last week etc, (how long) ago, then, just now, when, in 1992 etc
� He left a minute ago (stated time when? A minutes ago)
� She was in Rome for two months (she isn't in Rome any more action not connected to the present)
� He went to the cinema 5 times last month (action not connected to the present �it is the following month now)
� I saw Kemal Sunal (action not connected to the present- he is dead )
� She announced her decision this morning. (giving details of the news stated time in the past)
We use the past simple to talk about actions and states which we see as completed in the past.
We can use it to talk about a specific point in time.
* She came back last Friday.
* I saw her in the street.
* They didn't agree to the deal.
It can also be used to talk about a period of time.
* She lived in Tokyo for seven years.
* They were in London from Monday to Thursday of last week.
* When I was living in New York, I went to all the art exhibitions I could.
You will often find the past simple used with time expressions such as these:
* three weeks ago
* last year
* in 2002
* from March to June
* for a long time
* for 6 weeks
* in the 1980s
* in the last century
* in the past
Please Click the links for exercises:
English Listening Exercises - Brussels
Recently I visited the capital of Europe. What was it like and what did I think of it?
Find out by doing these four exercises:
Business English Lessons
Here is some exercises for you:
Business English lessons - Way Idioms
If you 'pave the way' it means to make progress easier.
� The agreement on trade paves the way for better relations between the countries.
� The discovery paved the way to the development of a new drug to treat diabetes.
If you are 'set in your ways' , you resist any changes.
� He's only 45 but he is so set in his ways he could be 75.
� I'm too set in my ways to accept any changes.
If you climb through the ranks of a company and reach a high position, you have 'worked your way to the top'.
� He started here as a young man and gradually worked his way to the top of the company.
� The best bosses have usually worked their way to the top and not been appointed from outside.
If you want to buy something for $200 and the person wants you to pay $300, you can agree to 'meet halfway' and pay $250.
� You want 600. I want 400. Let's meet each other halfway and agree on 500.
� She wanted six weeks and he wanted ten. So they met each other halfway and decided on eight.
If you speak well (and usually persuasively), you have 'a way with words'.
� Let her talk to them. She has a way with words.
� I know you have a way with words but you're not going to get me to change my mind.
If you stop somebody from doing something, you 'stand in their way'.
� I won't stand in your way if you want to apply for that job.
� Nothing is going to stand in my way. I'm going to do it.
Sometimes discussions don't stay on the subject and go 'way off' course.
� We've wandered way off the subject.
� I took a wrong turning and went way off course.
If you make a lot of effort and inconvenience yourself to help somebody, you 'go out of your way' to help them.
� I went out of my way to help him and he didn't even thank me.
� Don't go out of your way to do it but, if you see any Cadbury's chocolate, will you get me some?
Some people want both to work less and to earn more money. They want to 'have it both ways'.
� You can't have it both ways. Which is more important to you?
� A full-time job and a full-time family carer? It's difficult to have it both ways.
If you want to avoid somebody, you 'keep out of their way'.
� The boss is in a bad mood. Keep out of her way.
� I wasn't deliberately keeping out of your way.
If you change the order of two things, you put them 'the other way round'.
� As Brian hasn't arrived yet, we're going to put the first two presentations the other way round and start with Jane's.
� It's not that she's mad with him. It's the other way round. He's mad with her.
'To my way of thinking' means 'in my opinion'.
� Jane is a better speaker to my way of thinking.
� To my way of thinking, we need to find a better candidate.
If you have no opinion between two choices, you don't mind 'either way'.
� Drive, if you prefer. I don't mind either way.
� We could meet here or there. Either way is good for me.
'On the way' means that it is coming.
� I have a new baby on the way.
� She's on her way but got held up in traffic.
If things have changed a lot, they have 'come a long way'.
� We started out in one small office but we've come a long way since then.
� We've both come a long way since I first met you as an office junior.
When you give some information as incidental to the main conversation, you can introduce it by saying 'by the way'.
� By the way, did I tell you that Leslie is going to Ghana?
� By the way, I'm taking tomorrow off.
Exercises, please clink the links
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