[coverattach=1] There are 3 key questions to ask to understand poetry properly:
-What is this poem about? (content)
-How is it written? (style)
Why has the poet chosento write the poem in this particular way?(the effect of form and structure)
Certain features of poetry:
Content -Form-Tone(şaire özel)-Mood(şiirin genel atmosferindeki hali)-imagery-rhythm-Rhyme(kafiye) =POEM
All these elements above are interrelated and interdependent.
Content and poetic voice :
Content : What the poem is all about-the ideas,themes,and storyline.
Surface meaning: ıt can be an important first step towards a fuller understanding.
Poetic voice: the speaker of the poem. Poetic voice may be ;
-a narrator figure’s other than the poet.(Great gastby de oldugu gibi yazar kendi bir karakter yaratıp onun agızından anlatır.)
Tone and mood: The effect of a poem on the reader.
Tone: There are many different kinds of tone, for example angry of reflective,melancholy or joyful,bitter or ironic. Shortly,it tells us about the feeling of the poet or the narrator of the poem.
Mood: The atmosphere that the poem creates.
If we understand the tone, we can understand the underlying meaning of the words of the poem.
Image :a language used in such a way as to help us to see, hear,taste,feel,think about or generally understand more clearly or vividly what is being said.
Functions of imagery:
- describing sth. Directly(literal image)
- describing sth. By comparing it to sth.else(non-literal/figurative)e.g. simile,metaphor.
The simile: explicit comparison made by using words ‘as’or ‘like’
The metaphor: implicit comparison that is , less direct than the smile. It describes the subject as being the thing to which it is compared.
Personification: occurs when an inanimate ocject or abstract idea is attributed whit human qualities or actions.
Aural imagery : has an effect especially on the ear of the reader.(total effect:creates an image in the mind also)
Alliteration: the repettition of the same consonant sound. E.g. Crowds,colourless and careworn…(buradaki c’ler.)
Assonance(yarım kafiye): the repetition of a vowel sound.e.g.:summer,grows old cold-blooded mother….
Onomatopoeia : words that reflect their meaning by their sound.e.g. bang,thud,hiss,sizzleihush,cuckuo,
• To understand the overall effect of all these images in the poem is very important.
Rhyme: Rhym and rhythm affects the sound (musical quality) of a poem..
Rhyme scheme: the system of rhyme.
Most of the rhymes occur at the and of a line.
Internal rhymes: rhymes that occur with in the line.
There are various kinds of rhyme schemes. Rhyme schema is done by indicating lines that rhyme together by giving them the same letter.
Rhyming couplets: Pairs of lines that rhyme(couplets).
Heroic couplets: two lines that rhyme together and that are written in iambic pentameter.
Effect of rhyming couplets:
-creates a bold, assertive effect (vurgu yaratır.)
-conveys a point or message
-creates a comic effect
-deflates an argument or charecter
Quatrain: a set of four rhyming lines. (kıta)
The most important effect of quatrains:
- produces a sense of unity within compact and regular stanzas
Sestet: A six line stanza (also the last six lines of an italian sonnet.)
Octave: an eight line stanza( also the first eight lines of an italian sonnet.)
• again the most important of all is the overall effect of these rhyme schemes in the poem.
Rhythm: -one of the basic differences between a poem and a piece of prose is that a poem can contain some form regular beat or rhythm.
*the effects of rhythm:
-emphasizes a certain aspect or idea. (belli bir bakış açısında düşünceyi vurgular.)
-contributes to the mood or atmosphere of a poem.(bütün şiirin atmosferine katkı yapar.)
-contributes to the musical quality of a poem.
Sonnet : 14 dizeli şiirlere denir.
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