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Halkla İlişkiler ve Tanıtım hakkinda Postmodernizm, Tüketim ve Moda ile ilgili bilgiler


[coverattach=1]Postmodernizm, Tüketim ve Moda: "Türk Dergi Reklamlarında 'İdeal' Erkeğin Moda Üzerinden Temsili"-Postmodernism, Consumption And Fashion: "The Representation Of Ideal 'Men' Throughout The Fashion In Turkish Magazine Advertisements" Moda pratikleri, cinsiyet

Halkla İlişkiler ve Tanıtım Halkla İlişkiler ve Tanıtım Bölümü, bu alanda yetişmiş işgücü sağlamak ve araştırmalar yapmak amacıyla oluşturulmuştur. Bölüm, gelişen iletişim ortamında önem kazanan halkla ilişkiler, tanıtım, reklamcılık, kamuoyu araştırmaları konularında verdiği eğitimle bu alanlara katkıda bulunmaktadır.

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Standart Postmodernizm, Tüketim ve Moda

[coverattach=1]Postmodernizm, Tüketim ve Moda: "Türk Dergi Reklamlarında 'İdeal' Erkeğin Moda Üzerinden Temsili"-Postmodernism, Consumption And Fashion: "The Representation Of Ideal 'Men' Throughout The Fashion In Turkish Magazine Advertisements"
Moda pratikleri, cinsiyet rollerinin görünümü ve kişiliğin görünüm yoluyla nasıl temsil edildiğinin anlaşılabilmesi noktasında en 'önemli araçlardan biridir. Bu araştırma moda tüketiminin, kültürel bir değer arz eden postmodern tüketim pratikleri içindeki parçalanma ve aidiyet ihtiyaçları paralelinde erkek cinsiyetin kendini ifade etmede ve sosyal iletişim kurmada nasıl gösterge değeri taşıdığını ve bunun sonucunda moda imgelerinde ideal erkek imajlarının ne şekilde gerçekleştiğini söz konusu et¬mektedir. Araştırmada reklamcılık endüstrisinin moda yoluyla ortaya koyduğu 'ideal erkek' imajını ortaya çıkarmak için popüler erkek dergileri Esquire, FHM, Max ve Boxer üzerinde bir içerik analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada gerçekleştirilen içerik analizinin sonucu olarak, reklamlarda çok farklı imajlarla temsil edilen erkek cinsiyeti için reklamcılıkta çifte standartlar uygulandığı ifade edilmiştir. İçerik analizi gerçekleştirilen pek çok reklamda, geleneksel ataerkil imajlar doğrultusunda erkek cinsi¬yetinin hala güçlü ve dominant olarak gösterildiği görülmüştür. Diğer taraftan, pek çok reklamın da geleneksel yaklaşım dışında kişisel görünümleri ve yaşam stili ikonlarıyla bağdaştırılan erkek imaj¬larının kadın imajlarına çok yakın bir tarzda, hatta daha çok kadın cinsiyeti klişe imajlarıyla sergilen
diği görülmüştür. Kısacası, reklamlarda hem geleneksel imajlarla hem de çağdaş yeni imajlarla temsil edilen erkek cinsiyetinin bu bahsedilen çifte standardın sonucu olduğu araştırmada belirtilmiştir

Fashion is a pattern site to improve an apprehension of the representation of gender roles portrayals and self through appearance expression. It represents contingently, the most simply observed indication of 'gender in portrayals'. This paper explores the prominence of fashion consumption for males as semiotic markers for expressing self and social communication in order to lay stress on the increasing fragmentation, necessities in state of belonging of this postmodern market and the role of consumption practices as cultural markers. In this paper the advertising industry's representation of 'ideal men' throughout the fashion was examined in four popular men's magazines such as Esquire, FHM, Max, and Boxer. As the conclusion of the content analysis conducted for the study, we stated advertising sets double-standard for the male gender that is portrayed in vastly different ways. Ads that target men in fashion advertisements still portray men as powerful and dominating creatures and point to traditional aspects of masculinity. On the other hand, some other advertisements targeted men with obsessed with self-image and lifestyle whose good looks can be seen as slightly womanly. The study revealed that contemporary man is characterized by both traditional and contemporary new images.

INTRODUCTION
Men and women akin have been sensible of their appearances for a long time past. It's fact that finding a friend or a partner, a good social life, accomplishment in business af¬fairs, a good impression on different people and many other prominent things are clinched by a desirable appearance. All these attributes are related to communicative quality of fashion practices in essence. Any kind of clothing preferences acquaints with others who we are or who we would like to be-or not to be? Accurately, clothing is the most crucial consumer good which identifies one's personality to others. People array to amuse, to excite, to affect, to attract, to com¬plaint, to protest, to conform, to feel hon¬oured, and so on.
Apart from individual clothing preferences, especially in the mass-consumer society, a system called as fashion gives us great in¬sights into how consumer goods-clothing for us- can be used to create an image of oneself, to make accounts about how we discern ourselves or what we would like to be (Crane, 2003: 11). Furthermore, fashion is essentially a language of embedded with signs and syntax of everyday life. And, it requires an articulate reader to uncover codes and signifiers to create their desirable appearance (Gottdiener, 2005: 306). Mean¬while fashion is not random construct, and it's created professionally by the dynamics of consumer industry which include designers, advertisers, and stage experts and so on. In this context, fashion system is an important cultural phenomena apart from its economic benefits and it's not astonishing to find that examines of fashion reflect the major breaches within cultural/gender representa¬tion theory from the beginning. Changing male image is also can be seen as a cultural response to social change apart from its eco¬nomic dynamics.
From the second half of the twentieth cen¬tury, there have been many changes in the fashion system. Fashion extends a great vari¬ety of options for people to create and con¬duct their appearance in the postmodern consumer culture. The nature of fashion suits postmodern culture which constantly alters and lay stress on recentness, newness, ambiguity or illusion of something new, something different, meant that signs and symbols are transient (Burton, 1998: 301¬310). The linkages between fashion and postmodernity come from social, cultural and aesthetics area of postmodernity (Kaiser, Nagasawa & Hutton, 1991; Partington 1996). In some aspects, fashion is a constituent feature of postmodernity by the destruction of constant style and creation of the new. Fashion itself is conceded on producing new practices, styles and tastes. It seeks for the new and admired things, while deserting from cliché. Therefore, fashion and post¬modernism are like synonymous to create postmodern practices. Especially, with the fragmented and the decentring structure of postmodernity, self is accepted as a problem of it. In related to this, fashion industries highly implicated in the creation of personal self. Then, with this reason and some eco¬nomic necessities, fashion industries seg¬ment the marketplace and choose gender by their tastes and desires by the some promo¬tional efforts. Fashion advertisements are in the important place.
Attitudes towards fashion theory are starting to alter as it becomes more popular and clear within the frameworks of cultural studies, communication studies, consumption stud¬ies, and sociology. This paper's attitude to fashion and fashion images are in the view of cultural studies. When we look at to the Turkish literature Fashion Theory, we see that the dressed body had suffered from a lack of critical analysis. On the other hand, especially in the West world, researchers in¬creasingly have identified the cultural sig¬nificance of self-fashioning, including not only clothing but also such body alterations as tattooing and piercing. In this research notion of fashion is limited to clothing, and other consumption practices like body al¬teration and home décor, etc are not in¬cluded to analysis. In the framework of above-mentioned premises, in this paper; we aim to provide a comprehensive framework for the fashion practices in postmodern con¬sumption style which is cultural process and symbolic activity. In arguing this issue, we firstly aim to form the link between fashion and postmodern culture. Then we examine an important cultural change that has pre¬sent to the portrayals of 'ideal' men throughout the content analysis within fashion advertisements of print media.

Yrd.Doç.Dr.Uğur BATI, Yeditepe Üniversitesi, Reklamcılık Tasarımı ve İletişimi Bölümü,
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