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Max Ernst hakkinda turkce bilgilere bu adresten ulasabilirsiniz Max Ernst Max Ernst in tum resimlerini görmek icin buraya tiklayin Max Ernst (1891-1976) Max Ernst was born on 2 April 1891

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  #91  
Alt 02.03.08, 21:44
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Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!
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Max Ernst hakkinda turkce bilgilere bu adresten ulasabilirsiniz
Max Ernst

Max Ernst in tum resimlerini görmek icin buraya tiklayin
Max Ernst

(1891-1976)




Max Ernst was born on 2 April 1891 in Brühl, near Cologne, the first son of Philipp Ernst, teacher of the deaf and amateur painter, and his wife, Luise, née Kopp. Max Ernst never received any formal artistic training. In 1910-1914 he studied philosophy and psychiatry at Bonn University and took a deep interest in painting.
In 1914 Ernst got acquainted with Jean (Hans) Arp, and their lifelong friendship began. With the outburst of the First World War Ernst was conscripted to the army, where he served in the field artillery till the end of the war, never dropping his interest in art. It was during the war, in 1916, when he took part in the "Sturm" exhibition in Berlin. To the same period date his first contacts with Dada artists.
After demobilization Ernst settled in Cologne, where, together with Johannes Theodor Baargeld, a pseudonym for Alfred Grünwald (1892-1927), he founded a group of Dadaists. Their exhibition of 1920 at the Winter Brewery in Cologne was closed by the police on the grounds of obscenity. The works of this period are mostly 'junk' assemblages (e.g. Fruit of a Long Experience, 1919) and collages of printed matter. School text-books, educational placards and mail-order catalogs became his main source of materials. Cut-outs of different objects and patterns supplied by quotations come into absurd compositions, full of sarcasm. (e.g. The Hat Makes the Man. 1920; Dada-Gauguin, 1920, etc.)
In 1922, Max Ernst, following an invitation of his Dadaist friends, Gala and Paul Eluard, Tristan Tzara, André Breton, and others, moved to Paris. The same year he painted A Reunion of Friends, where he depicted himself and all his associates. In the paintings of his early Parisian period the artist was able to successfully combine the techniques of painting, assemblage and collage in large-scale paintings with enigmatic plots, e.g. Oedipus Rex, 1922; Teetering Woman, 1923; Two Children are Threatened by a Nightingale, 1924; etc.) In 1924 Ernst traveled to Indochina with Gala and Paul Eluard.
In 1924 André Breton published the First Surrealist Manifesto. Max Ernst was among those who shared the views and aims of the Surrealists and took an active part in founding the new movement. Ernst's invention of the frottage (pencil rubbings on paper or canvas) technique dates to the early 1920s. In this technique Ernst fulfilled a series of works, resulting in the publication of his famous "Histoire Naturelle". Frottage, which realizes the surrealistic principle of 'psychological automatism', Ernst applied in painting as well, inventing the so-called grattage (scrapings), e.g. Eve, the Only One Left to Us, 1925.
In the late 1920s Ernst turned to the beloved motifs of German Romanticism and revived them in a new, Surrealistic, manner: dark forests, mysterious caves, gloomy cliffs, dead moonlight, figures and faces which appear like ghosts from interlacing branches and twigs. (Fishbone Forest, 1927, Hunter 1926, Vision Induced by the Nocturnal Aspect of the Porte St. Denis. 1927, Bird in a Forest, The Horde, 1927)
Between 1929 and 1939 in addition to large-sized pictures in the collage, frottage and grattage techniques, Ernst began producing books of collages, the best known are the collage-novels "La Femme 100 têtes" and "Une Semaine de bonté". It was in these books that the character with the strange name of "Loplop" appeared; Loplop took on the role of a narrator and commentator. As a pictorial image Loplop appeared in Ernst's works a little bit later, a bird-like fantasy creature, which represented the artist himself as his "private phantom", as Max Ernst himself once put it. The artist in the shape of Loplop appeared in his works in person, either in caption or pictorial form, throughout his life. (e.g. Loplop Introduces a Young Girl. 1930; Loplop Introduces Loplop, 1930; La Foresta Imbalsamata. 1935, The Angel of Hearth and Home, 1937, Surrealism and Painting. 1942, etc.) Thus The Angel of Hearth and Home was painted in response to the defeat of the Republican Spain and expresses his feeling of helplessness with regard to the coming menace of fascism.
In 1937 Ernst distanced himself from Breton and the Communist group of Surrealists, though he remained true to the chosen methods of work. In 1938 he left Paris and settled in Saint Martin d'Ardèche in the South of France, where his famous picture The Robing of the Bride was painted.
With the outbreak of the Second World War Max Ernst was arrested by French authorities for being a "hostile alien". Thanks to the intercession of Eluard, he was discharged a few weeks later. Soon after the French occupation by the Nazis, he was arrested by the Gestapo, managed to escape and flee to America with the help of Peggy Guggenheim, a sponsor of the arts.
In 1941-1945 Ernst lived in NY, where together with other European emigrant painters, he not only worked but also shared his knowledge and experience with younger American colleagues, thus leaving a lasting and profound influence on the development of American modern art. The pictures of the period Europe After the Rain II, 1940-42, Day and Night, 41/42, The Eye of Silence, 43/44; Vox Angelica, 1945; The Temptation of St. Anthony, 1945, etc., reflect in a surrealistic manner the tragic social reality.
In 1946-52 Ernst lived in Arizona, surrounded by landscapes that resembled his own pictorial phantasmagorias. In the USA he got interested in sculpture and left a number of pieces, which mainly consisted of found objects assembled in ever-new combinations.
In 1953 the artist returned to Europe and settled in France. In the 1950s Ernst got world acclaim. In his late works the artist returned to the subjects of his early, Dada period, e.g. A Virgin, A Widow and a Wife, 1946; Colorado of Medusa, Color-Raft of Medusa, etc.
Max Ernst died on 1st April 1976 in Paris, one day before his 85th birthday.


Aquis submersus. 1919. oil on canvas. 54 x 43.8 cm. Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany



Family Excursions. c. 1919. Oil on canvas. 36 x 26 cm. Narodni Gallery, Prague, Czechia



Fruit of a Long Experience. 1919. Painted wood relief. 45.7 x 38 cm. Private collection.
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Konu Jeli tarafından (02.03.08 saat 22:08 ) değiştirilmiştir..
  #92  
Alt 02.03.08, 22:11
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Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!
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Le Limaçon de chambre. 1920. Tempera, goache, ink, pencil, collage on paper. 31.2 x 22.2 cm. Private collection



The Small Fistule That Says Tic Tac / La petite fistule lacrimale qui dit tic tac. 1920. Gouache on paper. 36.2 x 24.5 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA



Untitled. 1920. Gouache, Chinese ink and pencil on cardboard. 30 x 25 cm. Private collection
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  #93  
Alt 05.03.08, 19:24
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Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!Jeli öyle bir şöhrete sahip ki kendinden önce namı yürüyor!
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Salvador Dali hakkinda turkce bilgiler icin buraya tiklayin

Salvador Dalinin tüm resimlerini görmek icin buraya tiklayin


Salvador dali

(1904-1989)



Salvador Dali at Artprice. To look at auction records, find Dali's works in upcoming auctions, check price levels and indexes for his works, read his biography and view his signature, access the Artprice database.
Salvador Dali was a celebrated surrealist artist of the 20th Century. Dali possessed excellent painting skills ***8211; his works were technically brilliant ***8211; and an extraordinary imagination. The artist was also an excellent showman, and had a love for outrageous and provocative acts.
Dali was born May 11, 1904, in Figueras, Catalonia, Spain. His talent for drawing was revealed at an early age. The artist***8217;s father, a public notary, was a strict disciplinarian and viewed his son***8217;s vocation less-than-enthusiastically, and it was Dali***8217;s mother who encouraged him to pursue art.
In 1918, at the age of 14, the painter had his first exhibition at the theatre-hall in Figueras. This was the same hall that Dali would later purchase and convert into his Theatre-Museum. In 1919, Dali published articles on the old masters in a local magazine, showing his understanding of the theory and history of art. At this time, he also published some of his poetry.
Dali's mother died in February of 1921, affecting the young man strongly. Dali had just graduated high school, passing his exams with difficulty, and begged his father to allow him to go study at the Academy of Art in Madrid. Although initially reluctant, his father relented.
However, his professors at the Academy were a disappointment to Dali. They were focused primarily on the latest trends in art: Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Pointillism, Cubism, etc. Dali, however, found these techniques easy to master, and wanted to be taught classical academic painting. His works of the period reflect his experiments with contemporary techniques:
Self-Portrait (1921), Portrait of My Father (1920-1921) and Self-Portrait with the Neck of Raphael (1920-1921) are Impressionist works. Nude in a Landscape (1922-1923) was painted in a Pointillist manner. Portrait of the Cellist Ricardo Pichot (1920) and Portrait of Luis Bunuel (1924) lean closer towards Post-Impressionism. Meanwhile, Venus and Amorini (1925), Figure on the Rocks/Sleeping Woman (1926) and similar works are executed in the Cubist style.
At the Academy, Dali would meet many of his future friends and surrealist colleagues, including Federico Garcia Lorca and Luis Bunuel.
In 1923, Dali was expelled from the academy for one year for criticizing his lecturers and "disturbing the peace." Later that year, in Gerona, the artist was arrested and detained by the police, for voicing radical political ideas. The artist would frequently espouse extreme political views during the early years of his career, ranging from communism and socialism, to anarchism, to monarchism. However, it is doubtful that Dali actually believed in any of these ideologies; rather, he took pleasure in shocking the public and his peers.
In 1925, the artist had his first solo exhibition at the Dalmau Gallery in Barcelona.
In the spring of 1926, Dali visited Pairs for the first time seeking to expand his artistic education beyond what the Madrid Academy offered him. There, he met Picasso, visited the Louvre and the Musee Grevin. Later that year, he was permanently expelled from the Academy, and was consequently conscripted into the Spanish military. He served for some 8 months, from February 1927 until October. That year, he also published "Saint Sebastian" and began developing an objective theory of aesthetics.
In 1928, he co-authored the Catalan Anti-Art Manifesto (called "Yellow Manifesto") with literary critic Lluis Montanya and art critic Sebastia Gasch. This document was to become the most influential statement of the Futurist, Cubist and Dadaist movements in Spain. Notable works of this period include
Honey is Sweeter than Blood(1926), The Stinking Ass (1928) and The Lugubrious Game (1929).
In 1929, Dali participated in the making of the avant-garde short film Un Chien Andalou ("An Andalusian Dog"), directed by his friend Luis Bunuel. The film's success within the surrealist movement got the two artists accepted by the Paris Surrealists and brought them renown within contemporary artistic circles. The businessman and art patron Camille Goemans paid Dali 3,000 francs for three of the artist's paintings.
In the spring of 1929, Dali traveled to the French capital and was shown around by Joan Miro, who introduced him to Andre Breton and his Surrealist group, the Romanian Dadaist Tristan Tzara and Paul Eluard. It was here that Dali first met Gala, nee Helena Ivanovna Diakonova, at the time the wife of Eluard. That summer, while on holiday in Cadaques, they would fall in love and have an affair that was destined to become a life-long marriage. His painting
The Great Masturbator (1929) is based on the first impressions Gala produced on him. Dali's father was vehemently opposed to his son's new love, and this would lead to a major argument between the two.

In 1930, Dali purchased a fisherman***8217;s hut at Cadaques. He and Gala would come here often over the coming years. This year, he first began developing his paranoiac-critical method of creating surrealist art. The method is based on the human mind***8217;s ability to link ideas and objects that are not rationally connected. The artist would begin by painting a picture of a real object and then, as his mind wandered, he would add phantasmagorical shapes and objects until he achieved the desired result.
That same year, he published ***8220;L***8217;ane pourri***8221; (***8220;The Rotten Ass***8221;) in the journal Le Surrealisme au service de la revolution, outlining the foundation of his new method, and the poem ***8220;La femme visible***8221; (***8220;The Visible Woman***8221;) in ***8220;Editions surrealistes.***8221;
Meanwhile, back in Spain, Bunuel and Dali***8217;s latest film, ***8220;L***8217;age d***8217;or***8221; (***8220;The Golden Age***8221;), came out. The explicit anti-Catholic message of the film provoked outrage from Spanish society, and the cinema where the movie was showing was wrecked by nationalists, who destroyed numerous works by Dali and other surrealists. Meanwhile, the painter***8217;s fame was growing at a rapid rate.
In 1931, Dali published the poem ***8220;Love and Memory***8221; in ***8220;Editions surrealistes.***8221;
In 1932, Dali***8217;s works were shown in the first Surrealist exhibition in the USA. Soon afterwards, he wrote a screenplay for a new film, ***8220;The Babaouo,***8221; however, this film, like all his subsequent cinematographic work, would never be produced. Later that year, a group of Dali***8217;s fans came together to establish the ***8220;Zodiaque***8221;, a club that would regularly buy his works.
In 1933, Dali published an article on edible beauty and Art Nouveau architecture in the magazine "Minotaure", sparking a revival of interest for turn-of-the-century art. At around this time, he first began drifting away from the other Surrealists in his approach to creating art, and also to eclipse the others in popularity. This would eventually lead him to break from the group.
In 1934, Dali exhibited
The Enigma of William Tell (1933), provoking arguments between himself and the Surrealists. Much of his work of the period is full of sexual symbolism, including Anthropomorphic Bread (1932), The Invisible Harp Fine and Medium (1932) and Atmospheric Skull Sodomizing a Grand Piano (1934).
That year, the painter also held an exhibition in New York City, where he was hailed by the public and critics.
1936 saw the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War. Although Dali had espoused radical political views throughout his life, he expressed no urge to join in the fighting. He and his wife stayed abroad, where he continued painting, writing and exhibiting. At the International Surrealist Exhibition in London that year, he delivered a lecture outfitted in a bulky deep-sea diving suit, nearly causing himself to suffocate. In December of that year, he was featured on the cover of Time magazine.
1937 saw further conflict between Dali and the Surrealists, this time over politics. The group had largely Marxist views, while Dali leaned more towards nationalism and fascism, praising Francisco Franco and Adolf Hitler. That year, Dali visited Hollywood, where he met with Harpo Marx, one of the famous Marx Brothers. Dali wrote a screenplay for them.
In July, he produced one of his most famous works in the paranoiac-critical method, "
The Metamorphosis of Narcissus," both a literary and painted piece. Well-known works from this period include the Lobster Telephone (1936), A Couple with their Heads Full of Clouds (1936), The Burning Giraffe (1936-37) and The Enigma of Hitler (1939).
During the same period, he produced designs for the leading Parisian fashion designer of the interwar years, Elsa Schiaparelli.
In January 1938, Dali once again participated in the Surrealist exhibition in Paris. That summer, he traveled to London, meeting with Sigmund Freud and painting a number of portraits of the famous psychologist.
In 1939, Salvador Dali finally broke with the Surrealists, famously declaring "Surrealism is me." The artist often regarded himself -- and arguably was -- the foremost painter of the movement, both before and after his expulsion from the Surrealist group. Andre Breton, the leader of the Surrealists, rearranged the letters of Salvador Dali's name to form the anagram "Avida Dollars." The Surrealists would use this moniker to refer to the artist after his departure, always speaking of him in the past tense, as if he were dead.
Visiting the United States once more, Dali published his pamphlet "Declaration of the Independence of the Imagination and the Rights of Man to His Own Madness." In November, the ballet Bacchanale premiered at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. Dali had been responsible for the libretto and set design, while the choreography was done by Leonide Massine, a Russian expatriate who had served as the chief choreographer for the ballet company Ballets Russes de Diaghilev.
In 1940, Dali and Gala briefly visited Paris, but quickly returned to New York. Because of the effects of the Second World War, the pair would remain in the United States until 1949. In 1941, Dali exhibited jointly with Miro in the Museum of Modern Art in New York. In 1942, the artist published his autobiography, "The Secret Life of Salvador Dali."
During the war years, Dali produced such works as
The Face of War (1940-1941), La Galarina (1944-45), a tribute to Raphael's la Fornarina and often considered to be one of the most sensual depictions of a middle-aged female in contemporary art, and the Temptation of Saint Anthony (1946). He was beginning to show an interest for the mystical and spiritual.
In 1946, Dali drew cartoons for Walt Disney, and did work for the Alfred Hitchcock film "Spellbound." In 1947, the painter produced his famous
Portrait of Picasso, paying tribute to his contemporary's mastery, but criticizing him for his almost obsessive intellectualism. Criticizing Picasso's left-leaning views, he famously wrote: "Picasso is a communist***8230; neither ** I."
In 1948, he published "50 Secrets of Magic Craftsmanship."

In 1949, Dali and Gala finally returned to Europe after their 9-year exile. The artist had decided to return to his native Catalonia, where he would spend most of the remainder of his life. That year, he painted "
The Madonna of Port Lligat."
Dali collaborated with the producer Peter Brook to design a set for the film "Salome", and with Luchino Visconti on the film "As You Like It."
In 1951, Dali published his "Mystical Manifesto," combining the idea of Catholicism with modern science. His experimentation with different media and different techniques lead to what is known as the Particle Period. In 1952, the painter exhibited his works in Rome and Venice. This year was the beginning of his Nuclear Mysticism period.
During these years, Dali produced the famous painting
The Madonna of Port Lligat (1950), as well as the Galatea of the Spheres (1951) and Nuclear Cross (1952).
In December 1953, Dali read a lecture on the paranoiac-critical method at the Sorbonne.
During this time, Dali was becoming fascinated with the "hypercube", a cube in 4-dimensions that exhibited itself in three dimensions as a kind of four-way cross. A prominent example of this in his art is the
Corpus Hypercubus/Crucifixion (1954), which shows Christ crucified on a hypercube.
In 1954, Dali worked with the photographer Robert Descharnes to produce the film "L'histoire prodigieuse de la dentelliere et du rhinoceros" ("The Extraordinary Story of the Lacemaker and the Rhinoceros"). At a press conference in Rome, Dali enters by bursting from a large hypercube that had been prepared for this occasion. This act was meant to symbolize his artistic "rebirth." In 1956, the painter exhibited at the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.
In 1958, Dali exhibits a 15-meter long loaf of bread at an event at the Theatre de l'Etoile in Paris.
In 1959, he presents the "Ovocipede" to the Parisian public, a vehicle that was basically a large transparent plastic ball. "Ovo-" means egg, and refers to the theme of birth and rebirth that was an important trait of Dali's Nuclear Mysticism.
In 1960, Dali began painting large-format mystical works such as the
Ecumenical Council (1960), Tuna-Fishing (1966-67) and The Hallucinogenic Toreador (1968-70).
In 1961, another of Dali's ballets, the Ballet of Gala, premiered in Venice. Again, the artist was responsible for the libretto and set design, while the choreography was done by Maurice Bejart. That year, Dali also read a lecture on the myth of Castor and Pollux at the Ecole Politechnique in Paris.
In 1962, Robert Descharnes published an album entitled "Dali de Gala: le monde de Salvador Dali" ("Dali of Gala: the World of Salvador Dali").
In 1963, Dali published "The Tragic Myth of Millet's Angelus." He came out with the notion that the railway station in Perpignan, a town in the south of France, was the center of the universe, because "it is always at Perpignan***8230; that I have my most unique ideas." He painted
The Railway Station at Perpignan (1965) to celebrate this fact.
In 1964, the artist published the "Diary of Genius." The artist's works are exhibited in the Seibu Museum in Tokyo for the first time.
In 1971, the Salvador Dali Museum was built around the collection of A and E Reynolds Morse, which contained some 96 of Dali's paintings. Originally opened in Cleveland, Ohio, the museum would be moved to St. Petersburg, Florida in 1982.
In 1974, Dali opened the Dali Theater-Museum ("Teatro-Museo Dali" in Spanish) in his hometown of Figueras, in Spain. This would become the single largest and most expansive collection of the painter's artwork in the world. The painter was becoming fascinated with optical illusions and stereoscopy.
In 1978, Dali first encountered mathematical catastrophe theory, developed by Rene Thom in the 1960s and popularized by Christopher Zeeman in the 1970s.
In April of that year, the painter exhibited his hyperstereoscopic paintings (paired paintings meant to be observed through a stereoscope) at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Some of these include Dali from the Back, Painting Gala from the Back, Eternalized by Six Virtual Corneas Provisionally Reflected in Six Real Mirrors (1972-1973) and
Dali's Hand Drawing Back the Golden Fleece in the Form of a Cloud to Show Gala the Dawn, Completely Nude, Very, Very Far Away Behind the Sun (1977). Another work of this period is Gala Contemplating the Mediterranean Sea which at Twenty Meters Becomes the Portrait of Abraham Lincoln (1976).
In May, Dali became a member of the Academie des Beaux-Arts in Paris.
In 1979, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris held a large exhibition of Salvador Dali, covering many periods of his life. The exhibition later moves to the Tate Gallery in London.
Dali's wife Gala, who had been his muse and guardian -- in many sense -- throughout most of his career, passed away on June 10, 1982. The painter was affected deeply by this loss and moved into Pubol Castle, which had been his wife's primary residence. In July, the King of Spain Juan Carlos I made him Marquis of Pubol.
In 1983, Dali painted his last work:
The Swallow's Tail. There was a large exhibition of his work in Madrid and Barcelona. The perfume Dali was produced.
In 1984, Dali was severely burned in a fire in his bedroom at Pubol. The cause of the fire is unknown; it may have been a suicide attempt by the painter, a murder attempt by a member of his staff or a simple accident. The painter was broken both physically and mentally; he was no longer the arrogant, flamboyant Dali of earlier times. The painter moved to his Theater-Museum, where he would remain until the end of his days.
That year, another large exhibition is held, this time in the Palazzo dei Diamanti ("Diamond Palace") in Ferrara, Italy. Robert Descharnes published the book "Salvador Dali: the Work, the Man."
On January 23, 1989, the painter died of heart failure. He was buried in the crypt which he had had specially built in his Theater-Museum. In his will, the painter left all of his fortune and works to the Spanish government.
Despite the painter***8217;s later international fame, Dali always saw himself as Catalan, and maintained some of the uncomplicated, down-to-earth views of that people throughout his life. This is typified in the recurring theme of food in his work, both as a subject and as inspiration. The landscapes of his beloved Catalonia, in particular the Ampurdan plain of Figueras and the Catalonian Mediterranean coast around Cadaques, would also feature frequently in his work.


Port of Cadaqués (Night). ca.1918. Oil on canvas. 18.7 x 24.2 cm. Salvador Dali Museum, St. Petersburg, FL, USA.



Self-Portrait in the Studio. ca 1919. Oil on canvas. 27 x 21 cm. Salvador Dali Museum, St. Petersburg, FL, USA



Portrait of Lucia. c. 1918. Oil on canvas. Private collection


kaynak;abc gallery
__________________
Mankind differs from the animals only by a little, and most people throw that away.

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Konu Jeli tarafından (05.03.08 saat 19:27 ) değiştirilmiştir..
  #94  
Alt 18.10.08, 16:26
Jeli - ait kullanıcı resmi (Avatar)
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Marc Chagall hakkinda Turkce bilgilere buradan ulasabilirsiniz
Marc Chagall

Marc Chagallin resimlerini görmek icin alttaki linke tiklayin
Marc chagall in resimleri

(1887 - 1985)


Biography
Marc Chagall was born in Liozno, near Vitebsk, now in Belarus, the eldest of nine children in the close-knit Jewish family led by his father Khatskl (Zakhar) Shagal, a herring merchant, and his mother, Feige-Ite. This period of his life, described as happy though impoverished, appears in references throughout Chagall's work. Currently the Chagall's house on Pokrovskaya Street in Vitebsk is restored as part of the Marc Chagall's Museum.
After he began studying painting in 1906 under famed local artist Yehuda Pen, Chagall moved to St. Petersburg some months later, in 1907. There he joined the school of the "Society of Art Supporters" and studied under Nikolai Roerich, encountering artists of every school and style. From 1908-1910 Chagall studied under Leon Bakst at the Zvantseva School of Drawing and Painting.
This was a difficult period for Chagall; at the time, Jewish residents were only allowed to live in St. Petersburg with a permit, and the artist was jailed for a brief period for an infringement of this restriction. Despite this, Chagall remained in St. Petersburg until 1910, and regularly visited his home town where, in 1909, he met his future wife, Bella Rosenfeld.
After gaining a reputation as an artist, Chagall left St. Petersburg to settle in Paris to be near the burgeoning art community in the Montparnasse district, where he developed friendships with such avant-garde luminaries as Guillaume Apollinaire, Robert Delaunay, and Fernand Léger. In 1914, he returned to Vitebsk and, a year later, married his fiancée, Bella. While in Russia, World War I erupted and, in 1916, the Chagalls had their first child, a daughter they named Ida.
Chagall became an active participant in the Russian Revolution of 1917. Although the Soviet Ministry of Culture made him a Commissar of Art for the Vitebsk region, where he founded Vitebsk Museum of Modern Art and an art school, he did not fare well politically under the Soviet system. He and his wife moved to Moscow in 1920 and then back to Paris three years later, in 1923. During this period, Chagall published his memoirs in Yiddish, which were originally written in Russian and translated into French by Bella. He also wrote articles, poetry and memoirs in Yiddish, published mainly in newspapers (and only posthumously in book-form). Chagall became a French citizen in 1937.
With the Nazi occupation of France during World War II and the deportation of Jews, the Chagalls fled Paris, seeking asylum at Villa Air-Bel in Marseille, where the American journalist Varian Fry assisted in their escape from France through Spain and Portugal. In 1941, the Chagalls settled in the United States of America.
On September 2, 1944, Chagall's beloved Bella, the constant subject of his paintings and companion of his life, died. Two years later, in 1946, he returned to Europe. By 1949 he was working in Provence, in the South of France. That same year, Chagall took part in the creation of the MRAP anti-racist NGO.
The depression Chagall experienced following Bella's death was alleviated in 1945 when he met Virginia Haggard McNeil, with whom he had a son the following year, David (McNeil), and who became his housekeeper and lover. At this time, Chagall received financial aid from theatrical commissions and, in his painting, rediscovered a free and vibrant use of color. His works of this period are dedicated to love and the joy of life, with curved, sinuous figures. He also began to work in sculpture, ceramics, and stained glass.
In 1950 he also began experimenting with graphic mediums. After meeting with Fernand Mourlot, he often visited Mourlot Studios where he eventually produced close to a thousand different lithographic editions. With the assistance of Charles Sorlier, a master printer working at Mourlot, he spent 30 years exploring the graphic medium that most lends itself to color representation. Charles Sorlier also became one of his closest friends, assistant and counsel until the day of his death.

Chagall remarried in 1952 to Valentina Brodsky (whom he called "Vava"); Virginia had left him the previous year. He traveled several times to Greece and in 1957 visited Israel. In 1960, he created stained glass windows for the synagogue of the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital in Jerusalem and, in 1966, wall art for the new parliament being constructed in that city.
During the Six-Day War the hospital came under severe attack, placing Chagall's work under threat. In response to this, Chagall wrote a letter from France stating "I ** not worried about the windows, only about the safety of Israel. Let Israel be safe and I will make you lovelier windows.". Luckily, most of the panels were removed in time, with only one sustaining severe damage. In 1973, Israel issued a series of stamps featuring the Chagall windows, which depict the Twelve tribes, such as Levi, pictured there.
At the age of 97, Chagall died in Saint-Paul de Vence on the French Riviera on March 28, 1985 and was buried at the local cemetery. His plot is located in the most westerly aisle upon entering the cemetery.

Art
Chagall took inspiration from Belarusian folk-life, and portrayed many Biblical themes that reflected his Jewish heritage. In the 1960s and 1970s, Chagall engaged in a series of large-scale projects involving public spaces and important civic and religious buildings.
Chagall's artworks are difficult to categorize. Working in the pre-World War I Paris art world, he was involved with avant-garde currents, however, his work was consistently on the fringes of popular art movements and emerging trends, including Cubism and Fauvism, among others. He was closely associated with the Paris School and its exponents, including Amedeo Modigliani.
Abounding with references to his childhood, Chagall's work has also been criticized for slighting some of the turmoil which he experienced. He communicates happiness and optimism to those who view his work strictly in terms of his use of highly vivid colors. Chagall often posed himself, sometimes together with his wife, as an observer of a colored world like that seen through a stained-glass window. Some see The White Crucifixion, which is rich with intriguing detail, as a denunciation of the Stalin regime, the Nazi Holocaust, and the oppression of Jews in general.
For more information about his art, see the list of Chagall's artwork.
Use of symbolism
  • Cow: life par excellence: milk, meat, leather, horn, power.
  • Tree: another life symbol.
  • Cock (rooster): fertility, often painted together with lovers.
  • Bosom (often naked): eroticism and fertility of life (Chagall loved and respected women).
  • Fiddler: in Chagall's town Vitebsk the fiddler made music at crosspoints of life (birth, wedding, death).
  • Herring (often also painted as a flying fish): commemorates Chagall's father working in a fish factory.
  • Pendulum Clock: time, and modest life (in the time of prosecution at the Loire River the pendulum seems being driven with force into the wooden box of the pendulum clock).
  • Candlestick: two candles symbolize the Shabbat or the Menorah (candlestick with seven candles) or the Hanukkah-candlestick, and therefore the life of pious Jews (Chassidim).
  • Windows: Chagall's Love of Freedom, and Paris through the window.
  • Houses of Vitebsk (often in paintings of his time in Paris): feelings for his homeland.
  • Scenes of the Circus: Harmony of Man and Animal, which induces Creativity in Man.
  • Crucifixion of Jesus: an unusual subject for a Jewish painter, and likely a response to the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany in the late 1930s.[2]
  • Horses: Freedom.
  • The Eiffel Tower: Up in the sky, freedom.
Exhibitions
Chagall's work is housed in a variety of locations, including the Palais Garnier (the old opera house), the Chase Tower Plaza of downtown Chicago, the Metropolitan Opera, the Metz Cathedral, Notre-Dame de Reims, the Fraumünster abbey in Zürich, Switzerland, the Church of St. Stephan in Mainz, Germany and the Biblical Message museum in Nice, France, which Chagall helped to design.
The only church in England with a complete set of Chagall window-glass is located in the tiny village of Tudeley, in Kent, England. Chagall painted 12 colorful stained-glass windows in Hadassah Hospital Ein Kerem in Jerusalem, with each frame depicting a different tribe. In the United States, the Union Church of Pocantico Hills contains a set of Chagall windows commemorating the prophets, which was commissioned by John D. Rockefeller, Jr.
At the Lincoln Center in New York City, Chagall's huge murals, The Sources of Music and The Triumph of Music, are installed in the lobby of the new Metropolitan Opera House, which opened in 1966. Also in New York, the United Nations Headquarters has a stained glass wall of his work. In 1967 the UN commemorated this artwork with a postage stamp and souvenir sheet.[3]
In 1973, the Musée National Message Biblique Marc Chagall (Chagall Museum) opened in Nice, France. The museum in Vitebsk which bears his name was founded in 1997, in the building where his family lived on 29 Pokrovskaia street, although, prior to his death, years before the fall of the Soviet Bloc, Chagall was persona non grata in his homeland. The museum only has copies of his work.
In 2007, an exhibition of his work entitled, ***8220;Chagall of Miracles***8221; at Il Complesso del Vittoriano was displayed and included works such as the Red Jew (1915), Above the City (1914-1918), Composition with Circles and Goat (1920), and The Fall of the Angel (1923-1947), which impacte viewers the most. Chagall was Jewish but was heavily influenced by Christian iconography, as well as a dreamer whose works touched on the harsh realities of war and persecution, and also an avant-garde artist that did not align himself with one particular movement. The works in this exhibition highlighted all these points of Chagall's personality.

Tributes
Cuban singer-songwriter Silvio Rodríguez released in 1978 one of his most widely known songs, Óleo de mujer con sombrero (Oil of woman with hat) in tribute to Chagall's work.
Jon Anderson, singer from the popular group Yes, met Chagall in the town of Opio, France as a young musician. Jon credits him as a seminal inspiration. He has recorded a piece of music in his honor, as well as the charitable Opio Foundation which he established in memory of his connection with the artist. In 1997, Pasqualina Azzarello painted A Celebration of Imagination: a Tribute to Marc Chagall, a 15'x30' public mural in Central Square in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In 2005, musician Tori Amos recorded and released the composition "Garlands," with lyrics inspired by a series of Chagall lithographs.
In 2006, the musical group The Weepies released their album Say I ** You. One of the tracks is titled "Painting by Chagall"; part of the chorus is: "...we float like two lovers in a painting by Chagall, all around is sky and blue town, holding these flowers for a wedding gown, we live so high above the ground..." "Do Jump!", a physical theatre based in Portland, Oregon, created an acrobatic/trapeze theatre performance in tribute to Chagall.
In 2006, the fiction book "The World to Come" written by Dara Horn is about a writer who steals a painting by Marc Chagall from a local Jewish museum believing it once belonged to his parents. The book switches back and forth from the present to the 1920s, where Chagall teaches art to orphans of the Soviet pogroms. This book is a kaleidoscope of lives, eras, tragedies, and characters from Russia to Vietnam to New Jersey and follows the fictional writer's family backwards in time and Chagall's wondrous life forward. This book is based on the real event of June 7, 2001 in which the $1 million dollar "Study for Over Vitebsk" was stolen at a lively cocktail reception at the Jewish Museum in New York City. A ransom note was received on June 12, 2001 from a group calling themselves the International Committee for Art and Peace asking for peace to be established between the Israelis and Palestinians in the Middle East, a request beyond the control of the Jewish Museum. The painting was eventually discovered in February 2002 in a postal office in Topeka, Kansas and was returned to the Jewish Museum on February 21, 2002.

On July 7, 2008 Google remade their logo using his artwork, in honor of what would have been Chagall's 121st birthday. This customized version of the logo was submitted to and granted approval by the Artists Rights Society (which represents the rights of Marc Chagall in the U.S.) and the Estate of Marc Chagall. Previously, in 2002 and 2006, the Artists Rights Society clashed with Google when they asked Google to remove customised versions of its logo put up to commemorate artists Salvador Dalí and Joan Miró, alleging that portions of specific artworks under their protection had been used in the logos, and that they were used without permission.

Chagall and popular culture
Several of Chagall's works show a violinist either floating in mid-air above a village or apparently sitting on the edge of a peaked roof. This inspired the title of the popular musical "Fiddler on the Roof."

Quotations
  • "All colors are the friends of their neighbors and the lovers of their opposites."
  • "Great art picks up where nature ends."
  • "I ** out to introduce a psychic shock into my painting, one that is always motivated by pictorial reasoning: that is to say, a fourth dimension."
  • "I work in whatever medium likes me at the moment."
  • "If a symbol should be discovered in a painting of mine, it was not my intention. It is a result I did not seek. It is something that may be found afterwards, and which can be interpreted according to taste."
  • ***8220;If I were not a Jew***8230;I wouldn***8217;t have been an artist, or I would be a different artist altogether.***8221;
  • "In our life there is a single color, as on an artist's palette, which provides the meaning of life and art. It is the color of love."
  • "My name is Marc, my emotional life is sensitive and my purse is empty, but they say I have talent."
  • "Will God or someone give me the power to breathe my sigh into my canvases, the sigh of prayer and sadness, the prayer of salvation, of rebirth?"
  • "Will there be any more?"
  • "We all know that a good person can be a bad artist. But no one will ever be a genuine artist unless he is a great human being and thus also a good one."
  • "Only love interests me, and I ** only in contact with things I love."


kaynak
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Mankind differs from the animals only by a little, and most people throw that away.

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Frida Kahlo hakkinda turkce bilgilere buradan ulasabilirsiniz
Frida Kahlo

was born on July 6, 1907, the third of four daughters of Wilhelm Kahlo, a German Jew of Hungarian descent, and Matilde Calderon de Kahlo, a mestizo Mexican. The family lived in a house ("The Blue House") that the parents had built themselves in 1904, in Coyoacan, a suburb of Mexico City.
Frida***8217;s maternal grandfather had been a photographer and had taught her father the craft. Wilhelm, who changed his name to Guillermo when he became a Mexican citizen, set himself up in business and rose to relative prosperity, receiving commissions from the Mexican government. However, the Mexican Revolution, which started in 1910 and would continue for several decades, brought an end to this work, and as a result, Kahlo***8217;s childhood was spent in relative poverty, forcing her to start working at an early age.
In 1913, at the age of 6, Frida contracted polio, which left her right foot crippled and earned her the cruel nickname ***8220;Peg-leg Frida.***8221; Kahlo was very sensitive about this deformity, and this would lead her to wear, at first, trousers and, later, long exotic skirts that would become one of her trademarks.
Unlike many artists, Frida did not start painting at an early age. Although her father dabbled in painting as a hobby, his daughter was not particularly interested in art as a career and did not pursue it seriously.
Frida Kahlo received her primary education at the Colegio Aleman, Mexico City's German school. In 1922, she graduated and became a student at the Escuela Nacional Prepatoria (National Preparatory School), rated the best preparatory college in Mexico. Kahlo was one among only 35 female students out of a total of some 2,000. She studied the natural sciences, with the eventual aim of becoming a medical doctor.
It was at the Escuela that she first became acquainted with the ideas of socialism and national-socialism. Kahlo joined a group called the "Cachuchas", so named after the caps they wore. Several members of the group would later become prominent cultural and political figures.
The event that would transform her life and launch her artistic career took place in the September of 1925. Returning home from school with her boyfriend, Alejandro Gomez Arias, the pair was caught in a terrible accident. The bus that they were riding on collided with a tram, killing several people. Kahlo suffered severe injuries and was confined to bed for many months.
It was during this period that she took up the paintbrush, to distract herself from the pain and boredom of her condition. Her parents provided her with a mirror, so that she could serve as her own model, and this was how Kahlo began painting the self-portraits that would dominate her repertoire.
Some of her early works include the Self-Portrait in a Velvet Dress (1926), Portrait of Miguel N. Lira (1927), Portrait of Alicia Galant (1927) and Portrait of My Sister Christina (1928). With their muted colors and largely one-tone backgrounds, these works exhibit the prevailing European influence on Mexican art. This, however, was soon to change.
The ongoing Mexican Revolution was accompanied by a cultural reform, which sought to raise the status of indigenous Indian culture to the same level as the Spanish culture imported from Europe. The evolution of the dry, academic European style into the vibrant, colorful Mexicanist style can easily be seen in Kahlo's work.
By 1928, the painter had recovered sufficiently to lead a mostly normal life and she resumed contact with her old friends, many of whom had by now graduated the Escuela and were at university. It was through them that she got to know Diego Rivera, an established and esteemed painter, twenty one years her elder. The two of them had met before, when Rivera was painting a mural at the Escuela's amphitheatre, in 1922, but had not had any contact since. When Kahlo showed Rivera her work, he was greatly enthused and encouraged her to pursue painting professionally. The two would marry on August 21, 1929.
A year earlier, in 1928, Kahlo had joined the Mexican Communist Party.
By the end of the 1920s, the political climate in Mexico was starting to change. The president Plutarco Elias Calles, who ruled formally from 1924 to 1928, and then held on to power secretly until 1934, cut funding for large mural paintings, leaving Rivera, who specialized in murals, in dire straits, financially. In addition, Calles took repressive measures against political opponents, the Mexican Communist Party among them. Although Rivera had left the party in the 1920s, he was viewed as a sympathizer.
It was for these two reasons that, in 1930, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo moved to the United States. There, Rivera hoped to find a better market for his art, as well as safety from possible persecution. The couple would stay in the country for 4 years, traveling and staying in San Francisco, New York City and Detroit, as Rivera received commissions for murals.

In 1930, Kahlo became pregnant. Unfortunately, the injuries that she had suffered in the 1925 accident made it impossible for her to give birth, and Kahlo was forced to make an abortion. In 1932, she conceived again, and this time decided to try and give birth to the child, even if it meant undergoing a Caesarean section. However, this was not to be. Kahlo experienced a miscarriage, losing the child.
She expressed her feelings at this misfortune in the painting Henry Ford Hospital (1932). Other works of the period include the Portrait of Dr. Leo Eloesser (1931), Self-Portrait on the Borderline between Mexico and the United States (1932), New York or My Dress Hangs There (1933) and My Birth (1932). The latter was the beginning of a series of autobiographical paintings describing her early life and heritage.
In 1934, Rivera's commissions in the United States were fulfilled and Calles, who had been the de facto dictator of Mexico, was deposed, and so Rivera and Kahlo went back to Mexico, moving into a small house in San Angel, a suburb of Mexico City. In 1935, Frida discovered that her husband, who had never been too faithful to her, was having an affair with her sister, Christina Kahlo. Extremely hurt by this, she moved out of the house, and even considered filing for a divorce.
The couple got back together at the end of 1935, but their relationship would not be the same. Rivera did not change his ways, and Kahlo started having her own extramarital affairs, both with men and women.
In 1936, Kahlo returned to political activism. She and her husband petitioned the Mexican government to grant asylum to Leon Trotsky, who had just been expelled from Norway because of pressure from Moscow. Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas acceded to the artists' request and in 1937, Trotsky and his wife Natalia Sedova moved in with Kahlo and Rivera, staying until 1939. Trotsky and Kahlo had a brief affair.
It was through Trotsky that Kahlo was introduced to the notable French Surrealist Andre Breton, who was immediately taken with her work, seeing it as a form of "naïve Surrealism [***8230;] free from the Freudian symbols and philosophy that obsess the official Surrealist painters." Breton facilitated Kahlo's first exhibition outside of Mexico.
The exhibition took place in 1938, when Kahlo was contacted by Julien Levy, an art dealer from New York. The artist had always painted solely for herself, without giving any thought to an audience, and she did not understand how her artwork could possibly be of interest to anyone. Nevertheless, she agreed to the offer.
The exhibition was a great success. At the time, there were very few art galleries in the United States, and only a handful were dedicated to avant-garde art, so the exhibition received a great deal of attention and press coverage. Out of the 25 paintings exhibited, fully half were sold, and Kahlo received several commissions.
At the time, Kahlo's and Rivera's marriage was once more in difficult straits, and the money that she received did a great deal to help her establish a greater measure of independence from her husband.
In 1939, Frida set out for Paris, at the invitation of Andre Breton, who had promised to arrange another exhibition for her. However, Breton had taken no practical steps towards this goal and after several delays, it was only with the help of Marcel Duchamp, another surrealist, that the exhibition was organized at all.
Kahlo did not like Paris. She found the surrealists and the French public to be "too intellectual" and too snobbish to appreciate the works of a foreign painter, who was, furthermore, female. In addition, Europe was preoccupied with the war that many felt was inevitable, and interest in art was generally low.
Notable works of these years include the autobiographical My Grandparents, My Parents and I (1936), My Nurse and I or I Suckle (1937) and The Suicide of Dorothy Hale (1938/39).
Kahlo left France immediately after the exhibition and returned to Mexico, where she moved away from her increasingly estranged husband, returning to the home of her parents. The couple officially divorced later that year, mostly at Rivera's insistence.
Kahlo portrayed her despair at the separation in her painting the Two Fridas (1939). However, she was also determined to fend for herself, and this attitude was pictured in the Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair (1940), where she is shown wearing a man's suit and with her hair cut short.
The divorce did not last long, however, and the couple re-married at the end of 1940.
The 1940s saw a boom in Mexico, fueled by the war in Europe, which created a rich market for the country's natural resources. As nationalism surged, Kahlo's popularity in her homeland increased greatly, and she was awarded prizes, invited to join committees and offered teaching positions. She held exhibitions both in Mexico and the United States throughout the period.
In 1942, she was elected a member of the Seminario de Cultura Mexicana, a group whose mission was to promote Mexican culture. In 1943, she was appointed to the staff of the newly founded School of Painting and Sculpture, where she taught a painting class twelve times a week.
Notable works of this period include Me and My Parrots (1941), Self-Portrait with Monkeys (1943) and Self-Portrait as a Tehuana (1943), all of them exhibiting a pre-Columbian theme.
Meanwhile, the artist's health was declining -- a consequence of the terrible accident she had suffered nearly 20 years earlier. The pain in her back confined her to her home, from where she continued to teach, and she was forced to wear a steel corset. She underwent several operations.
This time of suffering is documented lavishly in her works, which include the Broken Column (1944), Tree of Hope, Keep Firm (1946) and The Wounded Deer (1946). Her work of the late 1940s is full of Aztec symbolism, which she linked with the circumstances of her life. A notable example is the Love Embrace of the Universe: the Earth, Myself, Diego and Senor Xolotl (1949).
During the 1950s, Kahlo's health deteriorated steadily. She went through a series of operations on her spine, all to no avail. Eventually, she was confined to a wheel chair, then permanently consigned to bed. She was forced to take painkillers almost constantly, and the technical execution of her work deteriorated visibly.
Some of her last works include Self-Portrait with the Portrait of Dr. Farill (1951; Dr. Farill was the surgeon who operated on her), Marxism Will Give Health to the Sick (1954) and Self-Portrait with Stalin. She also painted numerous still-lifes.
During the summer of 1954, Kahlo contracted pneumonia. She died on 13 July 1954, in the Blue House, the place where she had been born. Her body lay in state at the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City, where fellow Communist party members insisted on draping the red flag of their party over the coffin. This provoked a storm of outrage in right-wing newspapers, who called the act a provocation and an attack on Mexican civil society. In accordance with Kahlo's wishes, her body was cremated. The urn was placed in the Blue House, which was converted into a gallery of her work.
__________________
Mankind differs from the animals only by a little, and most people throw that away.

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Bütün zaman ayarları WEZ +2 olarak düzenlenmiştir. Şu anki saat: 17:49 .